South African Government

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Let's grow South Africa together

Economy and finance

National Treasury
Entities under National Treasury
South African Reserve Bank (SARB)
Tax administration
Environmental Levies
Southern African Customs Union
Why invest in South Africa
Department of Public Enterprises (DPE)
Department of Trade, Industry and Competition (the dtic)
Department of Small Business Development (DSBD)
Johannesburg Stock Exchange

 

 

 

 

 

The National Development Plan (NDP) recognises that faster, broad-based growth is needed to transform the economy, create jobs, and reduce poverty and inequality by 2030. National Treasury’s focus remains on:

  • reviewing tax policy and strengthening regulation in the financial sector;
  • managing future spending growth and fiscal risk;
  • managing government’s assets and liabilities;
  • making government procurement more efficient;
  • strengthening government financial management;
  • facilitating regional and international cooperation;
  • supporting sustainable employment, and
  • supporting infrastructure development and economically integrated cities and communities.

In July 2020, the Board of Directors of the African Development Bank approved a loan of about R5 billion (US$288 million) to the South African Government, as the country was battling Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and an economic slowdown. The purpose of the programme is to protect:

  • lives and promote access to essential equipment to prevent infection, such as protective personal equipment and sanitizers;
  • livelihoods by preserving jobs, incomes, food security and access to essential public services; and
  • firms by supporting enterprises in the formal and informal economy to withstand the impacts of COVID-19 and prepare for economic recovery.

The programme was expected to contribute to boosting government’s finances, allowing for the provision of critical healthcare resources and strengthening the social safety net in South Africa.

National Treasury

National Treasury’s legislative mandate is based on Section 216(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa of 1996, which calls for the establishment of a national treasury to ensure transparency, accountability and sound financial controls in the management of the country’s public finances.

This role is further elaborated in the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA) of 1999. The department is mandated to:

  • promote national government’s fiscal policy and the coordination of macroeconomic policy
  • ensure the stability and soundness of the financial system and financial services
  • coordinate intergovernmental financial and fiscal relations
  • manage the budget preparation process
  • enforce transparency and effective management of national revenue and expenditure, assets and liabilities, public entities, and constitutional institutions.

The NDP details a vision of building an inclusive economy that advances social equality. This vision is supported by Priority 1 (economic transformation and job creation), Priority 2 (education, skills and health), Priority 4 (spatial integration, human settlements and local government), Priority 6 (a capable, ethical and developmental state) and Priority 7 (a better Africa and world) of government’s 2019‐2024 Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF).

The work of National Treasury is closely aligned with these priorities, particularly in its aim to address the challenges of unemployment, inequality and poverty.

In giving expression to these guiding policies over the medium term, the department will focus on: reviewing tax policy and strengthening regulation in the financial sector, supporting sustainable employment, supporting infrastructure development and economically integrated cities and communities, making government procurement more efficient, strengthening financial management in government, and facilitating regional and international cooperation.

Reviewing tax policy and strengthening regulation in the financial sector

To improve fairness in the tax system, over the medium term, the department planned to propose amendments to tax policy that seek to meet government’s revenue requirements and eliminate tax loopholes.

In working towards this, the department would conduct research on appropriate tax designs for all proposed amendments, prepare discussion documents, hold workshops and meetings with affected parties, and prepare draft tax legislation before any legislation is introduced in Parliament.

It will also advise the Minister of Finance on amendments to tax rates and thresholds, which are announced each year in the annual budget. Recent proposals for amendments to tax policy have included the implementation of the carbon tax from 1 June 2019, and adjustments to Personal Income Tax (PIT) and excise duty.

In June 2020, Cabinet approved the tabling of the Financial Sector Laws Amendment Bill of 2020 in Parliament. The Bill is part of the Twin Peaks reform of the financial regulatory system applicable to the financial sector. It introduces a critical element to the regulatory system on how to deal with a failing bank or other systemically important financial institutions, to protect financial stability in a way that reduces reliance on the fiscus. This Bill is aimed to reinforce and strengthen financial stability in South Africa.

Supporting sustainable employment

The objective of the Jobs Fund is to co-finance projects by public, private and non-governmental organisations that will significantly contribute to job creation. This involves the use of public money to catalyse innovation and investment on behalf of a range of economic stakeholders in activities that contribute directly to enhanced employment creation in South Africa.

To address the challenge of unemployment, South Africa requires high rates of sustained economic growth. South Africa’s macro-economic policy environment, infrastructure asset base, schooling system and regulatory frameworks are all key to growth. However, improving and reforming these factors is a long-term process.

The Jobs Fund does not intend to tackle these long-term, structural causes of low growth and unemployment on its own. Numerous government initiatives are already tasked with parts of that challenge. Nor does the Jobs Fund aim to replicate or substitute these initiatives; rather it presents an opportunity to complement them.4

These funding interventions will seek to overcome some of the barriers to job creation that have been identified. Some of these relate to demand for labour, some to the supply of labour and some to the broader institutional environment. The Jobs Fund has been designed specifically to overcome these barriers by providing public funding through four ‘funding windows’ such as Enterprise Development; Infrastructure Investment; Support for Work Seekers and Institutional Capacity Building.

Within the four identified broad windows, the Jobs Fund seeks to stimulate good ideas, risk-taking and investment to discover new ways of working, where the costs and risks may be unknown, and where the pro-poor impact, principally in the form of sustainable job creation, may be significantly larger than with conventional approaches.

At its core, the Jobs Fund seeks to operate as a catalyst for innovation and investment in activities which directly contribute to sustainable job creation initiatives, as well as long term employment creation.

Making government procurement more efficient

Over the medium term, the Office of the Chief Procurement Officer will continue to monitor government procurement to identify malpractices that result in procurement irregularities. The office will aim to ensure compliance by analysing and monitoring the procurement plans of organs of state; and reviewing, investigating and reporting on various bids. The process for finalising the draft public procurement bill will be accelerated over the medium term, with public consultations expected to be held in 2020/21 subject to the bill’s approval by Cabinet.

Once effected, this legislation will introduce a series of governance reforms to the public procurement process and improve access to opportunities for small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs). The department will continue to support government institutions in strategic procurement over the medium term, and guide institutions, particularly in the health, education and travel sectors, through procurement and delivery management processes.

Entities under National Treasury

National Treasury is responsible for the following entities:

  • The Development Bank of Southern Africa is a development finance institution with the primary purpose of promoting economic development and growth. The bank also promotes human resources development and building institutional capacity by mobilising financial and other resources from the national and international private and public sectors for sustainable development projects and programmes in South Africa and regions in the rest of Southern Africa.
  • The Land and Agricultural Development Bank of South Africa, as a development finance institution, addresses agricultural and rural development in South Africa.
  • SARS collects all revenues due to the state and administer trade to support government in meeting its key growth developmental objectives. This involves facilitating legitimate trade, protecting South African ports of entry, and eliminating illegal trade and tax evasion. The organisation’s purpose is to contribute to the socio-economic development of the country by collecting the resources needed by government to meet its policy and delivery priorities.5
  • The Accounting Standards Board develops uniform standards of generally recognised accounting practice for all spheres of government. It also promotes transparency in and the effective management of revenue, expenditure, assets and liabilities of the entities to which the standards apply.
  • The Cooperative Banks Development Agency provides for the registration and supervision of deposit-taking financial services cooperatives, and savings and credit cooperatives, collectively referred to as cooperative financial institutions. The agency also facilitates, promotes and funds the education and training of these institutions.
  • The Financial and Fiscal Commission advises the relevant legislative authorities on the financial and fiscal requirements for the national, provincial and local spheres of government.
  • The Financial Intelligence Centre, among other things, identifies the proceeds of unlawful activities, combat money-laundering activities, combat the financing of terrorist and related activities, exchange information with law-enforcement and other local and international agencies.
  • The Financial Services Board is an independent institution established by statute to oversee the South African non-banking financial services industry in the public interest.
  • The Government Pensions Administration Agency provides pensions administration services to the Government Employees Pension Fund (GEPF).
  • The Government Technical Advisory Centre assists organs of state in building their capacity for efficient, effective and transparent financial management.
  • The Independent Regulatory Board for Auditors develops and maintains auditing and ethical standards that are internationally comparable, provides an appropriate framework for the education and training of properly qualified auditors, inspects and reviews the work of registered auditors, and investigates and takes appropriate action against registered auditors who do not comply with standards and are guilty of improper conduct.
  • The Office of the Ombud for Financial Services Providers considers and disposes of complaints against financial services providers, primarily intermediaries selling investment products.
  • The Office of the Pension Funds Adjudicator investigates and determines complaints lodged in terms of the Pension Funds Act of 1956. The office ensures a procedurally fair, economical and expeditious resolution of complaints in terms of the Act.
  • The Public Investment Corporation is one of the largest investment managers in Africa, managing more than R2 trillion worth of assets in a well-diversified portfolio of investment. It manages the assets of the GEPF, social security funds and other smaller funds.
  • The South African Special Risks Insurance Association is mandated to support the insurance industry by providing cover for special risks such as riots, strikes, political unrest, terrorist attacks, civil commotion, public disorder and labour disturbances.

South African Reserve Bank (SARB)

The primary purpose of the SARB is to achieve and maintain price stability in the interest of balanced and sustainable economic growth in South Africa. Together with other institutions, it also plays a pivotal role in ensuring financial stability.6

The primary function of the SARB, as the country’s central bank, is to protect the value of South Africa’s currency. In discharging this role, it takes responsibility for:

  • ensuring that the South African money, banking and financial system as a whole is sound, meets the requirements of the community and keeps abreast of international developments
  • assisting the South African Government, as well as other members of the economic community of southern Africa, with data relevant to the formulation and implementation of macroeconomic policy;
  • informing the South African community and all stakeholders abroad about monetary policy and the South African economic situation.

The SARB is governed by the SARB Act of 1989, as amended. It has more than 600 shareholders.

Tax administration

National Treasury is responsible for advising the Minister of Finance on tax policy issues. As part of this role, National Treasury must design tax instruments that can optimally fulfil a revenue-raising function. These tax instruments must be aligned to the goals of government’s economic and social policy. These instruments are then administered by SARS.

A single, modern framework for the common administrative provisions of various tax Acts administered by SARS, excluding Customs, was established by the Tax Administration Act of 2011, which commenced on 1 October 2012. The Act simplifies and provides greater coherence in South African tax administration law.

It eliminates duplication, removes redundant requirements, and aligns disparate requirements that previously existed in different tax Acts administered by SARS.

The Act provides for common procedures across the various tax Acts, and strives for an appropriate balance between the rights and obligations of SARS and the rights and obligations of taxpayers in a transparent relationship.

Office of the Tax Ombud

The Office of the Tax Ombud is intended to provide taxpayers with an impartial and low-cost mechanism to address service, procedural or administrative difficulties that taxpayers have not been able to resolve through SARS’s complaints management channels.

South African tax system

South Africa has a residence-based income tax system. Residents are, subject to certain exclusions, taxed on their worldwide income, irrespective of where their income was earned. Non-residents are taxed on their income from a South African source, subject to relief under Double Taxation Agreements. Foreign taxes are credited against South African tax payable on foreign income.

Personal Income Tax

PIT is a tax levied on the taxable income of individuals and trusts. It is determined for a specific year of assessment. Taxable capital gains form part of taxable income.

The main contributors to PIT are employment income from salary and wage earners, pensions, income generated from sole-proprietor activities and partnerships, and other income such as rental, interest above a certain threshold, etc. 7

As a means of collecting PIT from salary, wages and pension income, a mechanism known as Pay-As-You-Earn is in operation that enables employers to withhold tax due to SARS from employees’ and pay this over to SARS monthly and reconcile biannually.

Company Income Tax

CIT is a tax levied on the taxable income of companies, close corporations and cooperatives. After PIT and VAT, CIT has been the largest contributor to total tax revenue for the past decade.

Dividends Tax (DT)

DT is a final tax at a rate of 20% on dividends paid by resident companies and by non-resident companies in respect of shares listed on the JSE. Dividends are tax exempt if the beneficial owner of the dividend is a South African company, retirement fund or other exempt person.

Non-resident beneficial owners of dividends may benefit from reduced tax rates in limited circumstances. The tax is to be withheld by companies paying the taxable dividends or by regulated intermediaries in the case of dividends on listed shares.

The tax on dividends in kind (other than in cash) is payable and is borne by the company that declares and pays the dividend.

Taxes on payroll and workforce

Taxes on payroll and workforce includes the Skills Development Levy (SDL) and Unemployment Insurance Fund (UIF) contributions. SDL is a compulsory levy intended to fund training costs incurred by employers.

Skills Development Levy

Affected employers contribute to a Skills Development Fund that is used for employee training and skills development. This SDL is payable by employers at a rate of 1% of the total remuneration paid to employees.

Employers paying annual remuneration of less than R500 000 are exempt from the payment of this levy.

Unemployment Insurance Fund

The UIF insures employees against the loss of earnings due to termination of employment, illness or maternity leave. The contribution to the UIF is shared equally by affected employers and employees at a rate of 1% of remuneration each. The employee share of 1% is withheld by the employer and paid monthly to SARS, together with the employer share of 1% monthly.

Taxes on property

Taxes on property comprise Donations tax, Estate Duty, Securities Transfer Tax (STT) and transfer duty.

Donations tax

Donations tax is levied at a rate of either 20% or 25% on the value of the donation, depending on the aggregate value of the property being disposed of, in a specific tax year. An annual exemption of R100 000 is available to natural persons.8

Estate duty

Estate duty is levied at a rate of 20% and at 25% on the dutiable amount of the deceased estate that exceeds R30 million from 1 March 2018. Specific deductions and abatements are allowed from the total value of the estate.

Securities Transfer Tax

STT replaced stamp duty and uncertificated securities tax on marketable securities. It is levied on any transfer of a security, whether listed or unlisted, based on the taxable amount of the security.

A “security” means any share in a company; member’s interest in a close corporation; or right or entitlement to receive any distribution from a company or close corporation.

Transfer duty

Transfer duty is levied on the acquisition of property at progressive rates from 0% to 13% for all persons including companies, close corporations and trusts. The marginal rate of 13% applies to the portion of the value of property exceeding R11 million from 1 March 2020.

Domestic taxes on goods and services

Domestic taxes on goods and services comprise VAT, specific excise duties, ad valorem excise duties, fuel levy, Road Accident Fund (RAF) levy, environmental levies and health promotion levy.

Value-Added Tax

VAT is levied at a rate of 15% on goods and services with some exemptions and zero-ratings, and is also levied on the importation of goods and services into South Africa. The quoted or displayed price of goods and services must be VAT inclusive. A person who supplies goods or services is liable to register for VAT, if the income (taxable supply) earned is more than R1 million in a 12-month period, or when there is a reasonable expectation that the income will exceed this amount.

Fuel taxes

The general fuel levy is imposed on petrol and diesel (including biodiesel) manufactured in or imported into South Africa.

The increased general fuel levy will be R3.70/litre for petrol and R3.55/ litre for diesel from 1 April 2020. The Road Accident Fund (RAF) levy is imposed on petrol and diesel manufactured in or imported into South Africa.

The RAF levy funds the RAF’s motor vehicle accident insurance scheme. The increased RAF levy is R2.07/litre for both petrol and diesel from 1 April 2020.

Environmental levies

The South African Government has responded to the serious global challenge of environmental pollution and climate change by introducing several environmental taxes that are intended to modify behaviour of the country’s citizens for sustainable development of the economy.9

International Air Passenger Departure Tax

The tax imposed on international air travel was introduced in November 2000 and was last increased on 1 October 2011. Passengers departing on flights to Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Eswatini are paying a departure tax of R100 per passenger while passengers on other international flights are paying R190 per passenger.

Plastic Bag Levy

The Plastic Bag Levy was introduced to reduce litter and encourage plastic bag reuse. It is charged at 25 cents per bag as from 1 April 2020.

Electricity Generation Levy

The electricity generation levy was Introduced to encourage sustainable electricity generation and use. The levy is applied to electricity generated from non-renewable sources and costs 3.5 cents per kWh.

Incandescent Bulb Levy

The electric filament lamp levy was introduced to promote energy efficiency by discouraging the use of incandescent light bulbs. It is charged at R10 a bulb from 1 April 2020.

CO2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Levy

The CO2 motor vehicle emissions levy on passenger and double- cab vehicles was introduced to encourage the manufacture and purchase of more energy efficient motor vehicles. It is charged at R120 for every gram above 95gCO2/km for passenger vehicles and R160 for every gram above 175gCO2/km for double cab vehicles.

Tyre Levy

The tyre levy on new pneumatic tyres was introduced to encourage efficient tyre use. Although the tyre levy is not earmarked, it indirectly supports the responsible recycling of obsolete tyres. The levy was implemented in 2017 and the current rate is R2.30/kg.

Health Promotion Levy

The Sugary Beverages Levy took effect on 1 April 2018 and the current rate is 2.21 cent/ gram of the sugar content that exceeds 4g/100 ml. The levy applies to specific sugary drinks and concentrates used in the manufacture of sugary drinks to combat obesity and promote healthier consumer beverage choices.

Diamond Export Levy

A Diamond Export Levy on unpolished diamonds exported from South Africa was introduced, effective from 1 November 2008 at a rate of 5% of the value of such diamonds.

Southern African Customs Union

SACU consists of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Eswatini. The SACU Secretariat is located in Windhoek, Namibia. SACU was established in 1910, making it the world’s oldest Customs Union.

Negotiations to reform the 1969 Agreement started in 1994, and a new agreement was signed in 2002. The member states form a single customs territory in which tariffs and other barriers are eliminated on substantially all the trade between the member states for products originating in these countries; and there is a common external tariff that applies to non-members of SACU.

Excise duties

Excise duties are levied on certain locally manufactured goods and their imported equivalents. Specific excise duties are levied on tobacco and liquor products. Ad valorem excise duties are levied on products such as motor vehicles, cellular telephones, electronics and cosmetics.

Customs duty

Customs duties are imposed by the Customs and Excise Act of 1964. Ordinary customs duty is a tax levied on imported goods and is usually calculated on the value of goods imported and collected by the customs unit within SARS.

Customs duty rates in Part 1 of Schedule No. 1 and trade remedies relating to the importation of goods such as anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguard duty are set out in Schedule No. 2 of the Schedules to the Act and are determined through trade policy in terms of the International Trade Administration Act of 2002 administered by the International Trade Administration Commission.

Other taxes

Rates on property

Property-related taxes include municipal rates and charges for refuse and sewerage, which are collected by municipalities.

Payment channels

The majority of taxpayers are now using electronic payment platforms which significantly improve turnaround times. Cash collections at branches have been reduced as have the risks associated with them. From 1 May 2020, cheque payments in South Africa may not be in excess of R50 000.

Payment methods other than branch payments are:

  • eFiling: this required a taxpayer to register as an eFiling client in order to make electronic payments using this channel; and
  • Payments at banks: taxpayers can make either an internet banking transfer or an over-the-counter deposit.
Voluntary Disclosure Programme (VDP)

A permanent VDP was introduced in terms of the Tax Administration Act of 2011, from 1 October 2012. The permanent VDP is part of a package of compliance measures aimed at encouraging non-compliant taxpayers to regularise their tax affairs.

Why invest in South Africa

10 Reasons to Invest in South Africa

  1. Quality infrastructure and efficient logistics – With well-established and continued investment in infrastructure, South Africa is positioned as a key global hub and an attractive gateway into the rest of the continent.
  2. Largest presence of multinationals in Africa – South Africa is the investment destination of choice of a sizeable number of global corporates, who enjoy the benefits of doing business in the country. More than 180 Fortune Global 500 companies are present in South Africa.
  3. Manufacturing hub – South Africa has a well-developed, diversified manufacturing base that has shown its potential to compete globally, and serves as a manufacturing hub to supply the rest of the continent for a number of consumer product companies
  4. Lucrative emerging market – South Africa’s growing middle class and most affluent consumer base in Africa presents attractive returns on investment.
  5. Favourable market access to global markets – The African Continental Free Trade Area will boost intra-Africa trade and create a market of over one billion people with a combined gross domestic product of over US$2 trillion. South Africa has several trade agreements that provide an export platform into global markets.
  6. Innovation and tech hub – The Global Innovation Index ranks South Africa number one in innovation in Africa. The country’s intellectual property rights protection is regarded as the second best in Africa. South Africa is also fast becoming a technology hub in Africa and has a growing ecosystem in the tech sector ranging from technical expertise to finance support for entrepreneurs.
  7. Abundant natural resources – South Africa is abundantly endowed with precious metals. It is the world’s leading producer of platinum group metals, the sixth-largest producer of gold, has world-renowned underground mining expertise and more than 100 listed mining companies with operations in the country.
  8. Africa’s leading financial hub – South Africa has a sophisticated banking sector with a major footprint in Africa. It is also a financial hub in Africa, with the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE), the largest stock exchange by market capitalisation in the continent.
  9. Young trainable labour force – South Africa has a number of world-class universities and technical colleges, producing a skilled, talented, and capable workforce. It offers a diversified skillset, a large pool of trainable labour, and government support for training and skills development.
  10. Excellent quality of life – South Africa is renowned for its quality of life, offering both high quality city experiences and more tranquil and breathtaking landscapes.

Department of Public Enterprises (DPE)

The DPE is government’s shareholder representative for the state‐owned companies (SOCs) in its portfolio. The department’s mandate is to fulfil oversight responsibilities at these companies to ensure that they contribute to the realisation of government’s strategic objectives, as articulated in the NDP, government’s 2019‐2024 MTSF and the reimagined industrial strategy.

SOCs are crucial to driving the state’s strategic objectives of creating jobs, and enhancing equity and transformation. The department does not directly execute programmes but seeks to use state ownership in the economy to support the achievement of these objectives.

Chapter 13 of the NDP identifies the potential of state‐owned companies to build a capable and developmental state. This is given expression by Priority 1 (economic transformation and job creation) of government’s 2019‐2024 MTSF, with which the mandates of SOCs are closely aligned.

In overseeing SOCs’ fulfilment of their mandates, over the medium term the DPE will continue to focus on enhancing reforms to stabilise SOCs, and strengthening its oversight capacity to ensure that the SOCs in its portfolio are sustainable and contribute to investment in key infrastructure.

By ensuring that these companies contribute to lowering the cost of doing business in South Africa, the department aims to reduce the burden of administered prices on the economy by reducing the cost of electricity and freight transport.

The DPE oversees the following seven SOCs, which are key drivers of economic growth:

  • Alexkor – A diamond mining company primarily operating in Alexander Bay and the greater Namaqualand.
  • Denel – A defence company and although it is established as a private company in terms of the Companies Act of 2008, government exercises full control over it.
  • Eskom – It generates, transmits and distributes electricity to industrial, mining, commercial, agriculture and residential customers and redistributors.
  • South African Forestry Company – It is the government’s forestry company, conducting timber harvesting, timber processing and related activities both domestically and regionally.
  • South African Airways – It operates a full‐service network in the international, regional and domestic markets. The airline is responsible for promoting air links with South Africa’s key business, trading and tourism markets across the world, and contributing to key domestic air linkages.
  • South African Express Airways – It is a domestic and regional air carrier with a mandate to be an African airline.
  • Transnet – It is a freight and logistics company responsible for pipelines, ports and rail transport infrastructure operations in South Africa.

Department of Trade, Industry and Competition (the dtic)

The DTIC (formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) works to promote industrialisation and transformation, and responds to unemployment, poverty and inequality.

The NDP presents a broad vision for sustainable industrialisation and economic development and transformation in South Africa and, by extension, Africa. This vision is expressed specifically in terms of Priority 1 (economic transformation and job creation) and Priority 7 (a better Africa and world) of government’s 2019‐2024 MTSF.

The work of the dtic is directly aligned with these priorities through its reimagined industrial strategy, which is premised on the development of sectoral master plans aimed at improving performance in identified sectors.

The strategy sets out the department’s focus areas over the medium term. These are: providing industrial finance, developing industrial infrastructure, strengthening export capabilities and enhancing competition regulation.

The department plans to continue implementing the integrated national export strategy in line with its ongoing effort to build capacity for increasing the export of South African goods and services. Over the medium tern, more than 2 000 South African companies will be assisted to participate at organised national pavilions, trade missions and other export promotion initiatives that will be facilitated by the department.13

Department of Small Business Development (DSBD)

The DSBD is tasked with the responsibility of leading an integrated approach to the promotion and development of small businesses and cooperatives by focusing on economic and legislative drivers that stimulate entrepreneurship to contribute to radical economic transformation. The realisation of this mandate will lead to increased employment, poverty reduction and reduced inequality.

Key elements of the NDP emphasise the importance of the contribution of SMMEs and cooperatives to inclusive economic growth and employment. This is given expression by Priority 1 (economic transformation and job creation) of government’s 2019‐2024 MTSF, with which the work of the DSBD is directly aligned. Accordingly, over the medium term the department plans to focus on increasing support for small enterprises and developing cooperatives.

Increasing support for small businesses and developing cooperatives

The department provides direct and indirect support to small businesses through the Small Enterprise Development Agency, and support programmes such as the Black Business Supplier Development Programme and the National Informal Business Upliftment Scheme.

Accordingly, over the medium term, the department will focus on establishing a one‐stop SMME platform for businesses to access financial and non‐financial support; and improving access to finance by implementing the blended finance model in the Township Entrepreneurship Fund, and extending blended finance to SMMEs and cooperatives.

Applying the model entails the mixture of grants and loans that ultimately lower the cost of capital for borrowers, and ensuring access to finance for SMMEs and cooperatives. In terms of developing cooperatives, over the medium term the department will oversee the implementation and monitoring of the integrated cooperatives strategy, which is intended to ensure the successful establishment of sustainable cooperatives through funding, training and providing access to markets.

Developing the Small Enterprise Development Masterplan

To ensure the development of an enabling policy, legal and regulatory environment for small enterprises the department will develop the Small Enterprise Development Masterplan which will enable small enterprises to realise their full potential. The Masterplan will ensure the delivery of an integrated, targeted and effected support interventions aimed at promoting entrepreneurship as well as providing financial and non‐financial support to qualifying small enterprises, using the life cycle approach.

Johannesburg Stock Exchange 

The JSE is the largest exchange on the African continent and the 19th largest in the world. In keeping with international practice, the JSE regulates its members and ensures that markets operate in a transparent way, ensuring investor protection.

The JSE roles include regulating applications for listing and ensuring that listed companies continue to meet their obligations.

Source: Official Guide to South Africa

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