The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, is the supreme law of the country and binds all legislative, executive and judicial organs of State at all levels of government.
The judicial authority in South Africa is vested in the courts, which are independent and subject only to the Constitution and the law. No person or organ of State may interfere with the functioning of the courts, and an order or decision of a court binds all organs of State and people to whom it applies.
The Constitution provides for the following courts:
- Constitutional Court
- Supreme Court of Appeal
- high courts, including any high court of Appeal that may be established by an Act of Parliament to hear appeals from high courts
- magistrates’ courts
- any other court established or recognised in terms of an Act of Parliament, including any court of a status similar to either high courts or magistrates’ courts.
Other courts include: income tax courts, the Labour Court and the Labour Appeal Court, the Land Claims Court, the Competition Appeal Court, the Electoral Court, divorce courts, small claims courts, military courts and equality courts.
Decisions of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Appeal and the high courts are an important source of law. These courts uphold and enforce the Constitution, which has an extensive Bill of Rights binding all State organs and all people.
The courts are also required to declare any law or conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution to be invalid, and develop Common Law that is consistent with the values of the Constitution, and the spirit and purpose of the Bill of Rights.
In response to the constitutional requirement that everyone has the right to access to a court, the DoJ&CD will continue providing court infrastructure and improving access to courts.
Access to justice will also be enhanced over the medium term by the employment of additional prosecutors. Some 150 aspirant prosecutors, 39 regional court prosecutors and 19 senior public prosecutors will be appointed between 2016/17 and 2018/19.
The greater prosecuting capacity is expected to increase the number of criminal cases finalised, including those finalised through alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, by almost 13 000 over the medium term.
The organisation planned to increase the number of civil matters finalised from 53 622 in 2015/16 to 54 431 in 2018/19, and the number of legal matters finalised per year from 446 853 in 2015/16 to 453 590 in 2018/19.
According to Statistics South Africa’s Victims of Crime Survey 2014/15, 54,4% were satisfied with how the courts were performing.
In 2015/16, conviction rates in all courts improved in comparison to the previous year.
The high courts achieved an 89,9% conviction rate against the target of 87%, the regional courts achieved a 77,7% conviction rate against the target of 74%, and the district court achieved a 94,3% against a target of 88.
The legal profession is divided into two branches – advocates and attorneys – that are both subject to strict ethical codes. Advocates are organised into bar associations or societies, one each at the seat of the various divisions of the High Court.
There are voluntary associations of advocates such as the General Council of the Bar and other formations of independent bars. There are four regional societies for attorneys, each made up of a number of provinces. A practising attorney is by the operation of the law a member of at least one of these societies, which promote the interests of the profession. The Law Society of South Africa is a voluntary association established to coordinate the various regional societies.
In terms of the Right of Appearance in Courts Act, 1995 (Act 62 of 1995) [PDF], advocates can appear in any court, while attorneys may be heard in all of the country’s lower courts and can also acquire the right of appearance in the superior courts. The Attorneys Amendment Act, 1993 (Act 115 of 1993) [PDF], provides for alternative routes for admission as an attorney.
All attorneys who hold an LLB or equivalent degree, or who have at least three years’ experience, may acquire the right of audience in the High Court.
State law advisers provide legal advice to ministers, government departments, provincial administrations and a number of statutory bodies. In addition, they draft Bills and assist the Minister concerned with the passage of Bills through Parliament. They also assist in criminal and constitutional matters.
According to Law Society of South Africa, in 2016 some 6 088 of the 24 330 attorneys in the country were black men and 3 604 were black women.
In 2016/17, the DoJ&CD paid about R781 million to counsel, 79% of whom were historically disadvantaged individuals and 26% female.
The Constitutional Court is the highest court in all constitutional matters. It is the only court that may adjudicate disputes between organs of State in the national or provincial sphere concerning the constitutional status, powers or functions of any of those organs of State, or that may decide on the constitutionality of any amendment to the Constitution or any parliamentary or provincial Bill.
The Constitutional Court makes the final decision on whether an Act of Parliament, a provincial Act or the conduct of the President is constitutional.
It consists of the Chief Justice of South Africa, the Deputy Chief Justice and nine Constitutional Court judges.
Supreme Court of Appeal
The Supreme Court of Appeal, situated in Bloemfontein in the Free State, is the highest court in respect of all matters other than constitutional ones. It consists of the President and Deputy President of the Supreme Court of Appeal, and 23 other judges of appeal. The Supreme Court of Appeal has jurisdiction to hear and determine an appeal against any decision of a High Court.
Decisions of the Supreme Court of Appeal are binding on all courts of a lower order, and the decisions of high courts are binding on magistrates’ courts within the respective areas of jurisdiction of the divisions.
Justice Mandisa Maya was appointed as President of the Supreme Court of Appeal in May 2017. She is the first woman to hold this position.
A high court has jurisdiction in its own area over all persons residing or present in that area. These courts hear matters that are of such a serious nature that the lower courts would not be competent to make an appropriate judgment or to impose a penalty.
Except where a minimum or maximum sentence is prescribed by law, their penal jurisdiction is unlimited and includes handing down a sentence of life imprisonment in certain specified cases.
The DoJ&CD’s legislative mandate provides for a high court in every province. The Mpumalanga High Court was completed in 2016/17, bringing the total of high courts in the country to 14:
- the Eastern Cape has four high courts located in Grahamstown, Port Elizabeth, Mthatha and Bhisho
- the Free State High Court in Bloemfontein
- Gauteng has two high courts, one in Pretoria (North Gauteng) and one in Johannesburg (South Gauteng)
- KwaZulu-Natal also has two high courts, in Pietermaritzburg and in Durban
- the Limpopo High Court in Polokwane
- the Northern Cape High Court in Kimberley
- the North West High Court in Mafikeng
- the Western Cape High Court in Cape Town.
As at 31 December 2016, the NPA had maintained a conviction rate of 91% in the high courts.
Specialist high courts
The following specialist high courts exercise national jurisdiction:
- Labour Court and Labour Appeal Court in Braamfontein, Gauteng adjudicate over labour disputes and hear labour appeals, respectively;
- Land Claims Court, in Randburg, Gauteng hears matters on the restitution of land rights that people lost after 1913 as a result of racially discriminatory land laws;
- Competition Appeal Court in Cape Town deals with appeals from the Competition Tribunal;
- Electoral Court in Bloemfontein sits mainly during elections to deal with associated disputes; and
- Tax Court in Pretoria deals with tax-related matters, including non-compliance with tax obligations.
Regional courts, magistrates’ courts and periodical courts are all lower courts. There are 714 lower courts in South Africa.
Circuit local divisions (periodical courts)
These itinerant courts, each presided over by a judge of the provincial division, periodically conduct hearings at remote areas outside the seat of the high court designated by the judge president of the provincial division concerned. This is with a view to enhancing access to justice.
Regional courts are established largely in accordance with provincial boundaries, with a regional court division for each province to hear matters within their jurisdiction. There are nine regional court presidents and 351 regional court magistrates. There are more than 1 886 courtrooms dealing with district and regional court cases across the country.
The regional courts adjudicate civil disputes by virtue of the Jurisdiction of Regional Courts Amendment Act, 2008 (Act 31 of 2008) [PDF],
The divorce courts were subsumed under the regional court divisions. The divorce court rules made under Section 10(4) of the Administration Amendment Act, 1929 (Act 9 of 1929), were repealed in 15 October 2010. Subsequently, regional courts started adjudicating divorce matters. This has addressed the jurisdictional challenges in terms of which litigants have to travel to remote courts to get legal redress.
In the medium to long term, the Jurisdiction of Regional Courts Amendment Act of 2008 will reduce the workload in the high courts. In this way, divorce and other family-law matters and civil disputes of an amount determined from time to time is within the jurisdiction of regional courts. This means that attorneys have the opportunity to represent their clients in matters where they ordinarily need to appoint and brief counsel, thus reducing the cost of litigation and increasing access to justice.
As at 31 December 2016, the NPA maintained a conviction rates of 80% in regional courts.
Magistrates’ courts form an important part of the judicial system, as it is where ordinary people come into contact with the justice system daily.
For this reason, that the bulk of the department’s budget and resources are concentrated here. Jointly with the Chief Justice, the department implements programmes aimed at supporting these courts. One such intervention is backlog courts.
This is with a view to widening access to justice, as more people will be able to access the magistrates’ courts where it is cheaper and faster to obtain a legal recourse compared to the high courts.
In terms of the Magistrates’ Act of 1993, all magistrates in South Africa fall outside the ambit of the Public Service. The aim is to strengthen the independence of the judiciary.
Full jurisdiction was conferred to courts in rural areas and former black townships that exercise limited jurisdiction and depend entirely on the main courts in urban areas to deliver essential justice services.
Through the construction of courts, the right of everyone to have any dispute resolved by the application of the law in a fair public hearing before a court is guaranteed.
There are 763 magistrates’ courts countrywide. The magistrates’ courts prioritised for completion over the medium term are: Mamelodi, Port Shepstone, Plettenberg Bay, Dimbaza, Booysens, Richards Bay and Bityi. This is at a total projected cost of R1,4 billion over the Medium Term Expenditure Framework 2015 – 2018 (MTEF).
Building more courts will be supplemented by rationalising magisterial districts and aligning the jurisdiction of magistrates’ courts with municipal boundaries to ensure that all people can access justice equitably wherever they live.
By April 2017, about 48 senior magistrates had been appointed in various courts across the country.
The appointment of the new candidates, who assumed their new roles in May 2017, was in line with government’s commitment to transform the judiciary. Of the 48 appointed candidates, 47 were black and 23 were women.
As at 31 March 2017, out of the total of 1 576 active magistrates, 644 were women.
Small claims courts
Small claims courts were established to adjudicate small civil claims. They were created to eliminate the time-consuming adversary procedures before and during the trial of these claims.
The limit of cases involving civil claims in these courts is R15 000. By May 2017, there were 405 small claims courts.
The vast majority of the new courts and places of sitting are in rural areas and former black group areas.
The goal of having a small claims court in every magisterial district is in sight. Gauteng and Mpumalanga have already achieved this.
The number of people enjoying the benefits of access to justice through small claims courts has increased steadily.
Establishing these courts depends partly on the number of dedicated citizens who volunteer their services as commissioners or as advisory board members.
The small claims court model is an effective dispute resolution mechanism, which contributes towards the realisation of the DoJ&CD’s mandate to ensure access to justice for all.
Labour courts and labour appeal courts
The labour courts have the same status as high courts. The labour courts adjudicate matters relating to labour disputes between employers and employees. Labour courts are mainly guided by the Labour Relations Act, (Act 66 of 1995), which deals with matters such as unfair labour practices. For example, dismissing an employee without giving notice.
Labour courts can order an employer, employee or union to stop committing an unfair labour practice. Labour courts are empowered to give jobs back to employees who have lost their jobs unfairly. Labour appeal courts hear appeals against decisions in labour courts and are the highest courts for labour appeals.
The right to equality is protected by law in the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, 2000 (Act 4 of 2000) [PDF] and the Employment Equity Act, 1998 (Act 55 of 1998) [PDF]. The two Acts work in synergy. The Equality Act of 2000 aims to:
- prevent and prohibit unfair discrimination and harassment
- promote equality
- eliminate unfair discrimination
- prevent and prohibit hate speech.
The Act also provides for:
- remedies for victims of any of the above
- compliance with international law obligations, including treaty obligations
- measures to educate the public and raise public awareness about equality.
There are traditional courts in traditional community areas in rural villages. These courts were formerly known as chief’s courts.
These courts have jurisdiction to hear certain matters at the level of magistrates’ courts. They are designed to deal with customary issues in terms of customary law.
An authorised headman or his deputy may decide cases using indigenous law and custom (for example, disputes over ownership of cattle or lobolo), brought before him by parties within his area of jurisdiction.
A person with a claim has the right to choose whether to bring it to a traditional court or in a magistrate’s court. Any person who is not satisfied with the decision in a traditional court can take their matter to the ordinary courts.
The judicial functions of traditional leaders are regulated in terms of the Repeal of the Black Administration Act and Amendment of Certain Laws Act, 2005 (Act 28 of 2005) [PDF].
The Traditional Courts Bill, which was submitted to Parliament in 2016/17, aims to affirm the values of customary law and customs in the resolution of disputes, based on restorative justice and reconciliation and to align them with the Constitution.
Land claims courts
It specialises in dealing with disputes that arise out of laws that underpin South Africa’s land reform initiative.
The Land Claims Court has the same status as the high courts. Any appeal against a decision of the Land Claims Court can be lodged with the Supreme Court of Appeal, and if applicable, the Constitutional Court.
The Land Claims Court can hold hearings in any part of the country if it believes this will make it more accessible and it can conduct its proceedings in an informal manner if this is appropriate, although its main office is in Randburg.
South Africa has established community courts on a pilot basis to provide speedy resolution of certain types of community offences. These courts focus on restorative justice processes, such as diverting young offenders into suitable programmes.
These courts seek to assist the country’s court case backlog. Community courts are normal district magistrates’ courts that assist in dealing with matters in partnership with the local community and businesses.
The business community and other civil-society formations have contributed significantly to the establishment and sustainability of these courts.
Thirteen community courts have been established: Hatfield, Hillbrow and Protea (Lenasia) in Gauteng; Mthatha in the Eastern Cape; Thohoyandou in Limpopo; Kimberley in the Northern Cape; Durban (Point) and KwaMashu in KwaZulu-Natal, Bloemfontein and Phuthaditjhaba in the Free State; and Fezeka (Gugulethu), Mitchells Plain and Cape Town in the Western Cape.
Lessons from the pilot sites will assist in finalising the policy and legislative framework that will institutionalise community courts as a permanent feature of the judicial system.
Courts for income tax offenders
In October 1999, South African Revenue Service (SARS) opened a criminal courtroom at the Johannesburg Magistrate’s Office, dedicated to the prosecution of tax offenders.
The court deals only with cases concerning failure to submit tax returns or to provide information requested by SARS officials.
It does not deal with bigger cases such as tax fraud. Another SARS court operates twice a week at the Roodepoort Magistrate’s Office.
Criminal jurisdiction of the respective courts
Apart from specific provisions of the Magistrates’ Courts Act of 1944 or any other Act, jurisdiction regarding sentences imposed by district courts is limited to imprisonment of not more than three years or a fine not exceeding R60 000.
A regional court can impose a sentence of not more than 15 years’ imprisonment or a fine not exceeding R300 000.
A magistrate’s court has jurisdiction over all offences except treason, murder and rape. A regional court has jurisdiction over all offences except treason. However, the High Court may try all offences.
Depending on the gravity of the offence and the circumstances pertaining to the offender, the Directorate of Public Prosecutions decides in which court a matter will be heard and may even decide on a summary trial in the High Court.
The sentencing of “petty” offenders to do community service as a condition of suspension, correctional supervision or postponement in appropriate circumstances, has become part of an alternative sentence to imprisonment.
Sexual offences courts
Sexual offences courts were reintroduced by the DoJ&CD in August 2013 to provide specialised support services to victims of sexual offences, decrease turnaround times for finalisation of sexual offences cases and improve conviction rates in these cases.
In 2016/17, 11 regional courts were upgraded to sexual offences courts, bringing the total to 59 nationwide.
These courts are specially designed for the delicate handling of sexual offences through the use of technology, intermediaries and an appropriate court environment for dealing with sexual offences.
Government had deployed 161 intermediaries spread over all dedicated sexual offences courts and also installed 324 closed circuit TV systems, 49 one-way mirrors and established 222 child testifying rooms.
The courts have been labelled as responsive and effective, as they reduce secondary victimisation, improve the skills of court personnel, speed up the finalisation of cases and contribute to their efficient prosecution and adjudication.
The number of court rooms adapted in line with the model is projected to increase with eight (in addition to the existing 47) in 2016/17 and with 15 in 2019/20.
The rebirth of specialised courts has contributed to the increase of the conviction rate in sexual offences.
By March 2016, the conviction rate in sexual offences had increased slightly from the previous year, from 69% to 70%, with 7 098 sexual offences crime verdict cases with 4 978.
A multidisciplinary approach followed by newly established provincial structures with stakeholders from the DoJ&CD, LASA, the SAPS, the Department of Health and the NPA seems to have contributed to the improvements in handling sexual offences cases.
In June 2017, the High Court in Johannesburg lifted a 20-year “expiry date” on prosecuting sexual offences, declaring it unconstitutional.
In 2016/17, there were 18 magisterial districts providing victim support services in terms of the victims charter. The department aims to increase this number to 36 in 2019/20.
Transforming the judiciary
The department has made significant strides in its quest to transform the judiciary.
As at March 2017, there were 244 judges in active service in South Africa, of which 87 were women. Regarding racial demographics, there were 39 black judges, 11 coloured judges, 11 Indian judges and 25 white judges.
The limited number of women who advance to the bench has been attributed to the low number of female legal practitioners in comparison to their male counterparts.
At the end of April 2016, of the 2 826 members registered as practising advocates on the roll of the General Council of the Bar, only 742 were women.
South African Judicial Education Institute (SAJEI)
The South African Judicial Education Institute Act of 2008, established the institute to provide independent judicial education for judicial officers.
The SAJEI is responsible for the formal training of magistrates and legal practitioners in this legislation and other areas of judicial work.
Its purpose is to promote the independence, impartiality, effectiveness, accessibility and dignity of the courts by providing judicial education for judicial officers. In carrying out this function, the SAJEI is primarily directed and controlled by the judiciary. The institute provides education and training for aspirant and newly appointed judicial officers, as well as ongoing legal education and training for experienced judicial officers.
Office of the Chief Justice
The mandate of the OCJ is to render support to the chief justice as the head of the judiciary, as provided for in the Constitution, read together with the Superior Courts Act of 2013.
The OCJ is also required to:
• provide and coordinate legal and administrative support to the Chief Justice
• provide communication and relationship management services, and intergovernmental and internal coordination
• develop courts administration policies
• support the development of judicial policy, norms and standards
• support the judicial function of the Constitutional Court
• support the JSC and SAJEI in the execution of their mandates.
In the first five months of 2016/17, 50% of the cases at the Constitutional Court and 53% of the cases at the Supreme Court of Appeal were finalised, each against annual targets of 80%.
Performance on the finalisation of criminal cases with verdicts in the high courts was below the annual target of 64%, mainly because some of the more complex cases took longer than anticipated to be finalised.
Some 66% of the civil cases enrolled in the first five months of 2016/17 were finalised, against the annual target of 54%. This was as result of enhanced practice directions as issued by the judges president and the deputy judges president.
Regarding the performance of specialised courts, 73% of cases in the Land Claims Court and 52% of cases in the Labour Court were finalised against the annual target of 54%. The over-achievement related to land claims was due to enhanced case-flow management practices, while the underachievement on the labour court side was due to the more complex and drawn-out nature of the cases.
Regarding the number of criminal cases on the backlog roll in the high courts, there were 155 cases on the backlog roll against an annual target of 156 cases. The overachievement on this target was a result of ringfenced backlog cases that were prioritised for finalisation.
Legislation and policies
The OCJ derives its mandate from several pieces of legislation which include the following:
- The Public Service Act of 1994, which provides for the organisation and administration of the Public Service.
- The Public Finance Management Act of 1999, which regulates financial management in the national government.
- The Superior Courts Act of 2013, which empowers the Chief Justice to exercise responsibility over the establishment and monitoring of norms and standards for the exercise of judicial functions for all courts. The Minister of Justice and Correctional Services has, in terms of this Act, delegated certain powers and functions to the Secretary-General (SG) of the OCJ for the purposes of providing administrative support functions to the Chief Justice and the Judiciary. This Act also regulates the allocation of financial resources of the OCJ and designates the SG as the Accounting Officer.
- The Judges’ Remuneration and Conditions of Employment Act of 2001, which deals with the remuneration and conditions of employment of judges.
- The JSC Act of 1994, which deals with the appointment of judges and support to the JSC.
- The SAJEI Act of 2008, which provides for further training of judicial officers.
- The Public Service Act of 1994: In March 2015, the Minister of Public Service and Administration, in terms of this Act, determined the functions relating to the administration of the Superior Courts transferred from the DOJ&CD to the OCJ.
Budget and funding
In 2016/17, the OCJ’s allocated budget amounted to R1,785 billion. Of this amount, R920,057 million was allocated to judges’ remuneration and benefits. This means that the OCJ had an operating budget of R864,99 million.
Over the medium term, the OCJ will focus on improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the court system, specifically through implementing and monitoring judicial norms and standards and facilitating the appointment and training of judicial officers.
This focus supports the NDP’s vision to strengthen judicial governance and the rule of law by accelerating reforms towards judiciary-led, independent court administration and by dramatically scaling up judicial training.
During 2016/17, the department had 2 645 posts (including 243 judicial officers), which were all funded and filled. Judicial officers included justices for the peace, magistrates and
Over the medium term, the department will fund the operationalisation of the Superior Courts Act of 2013, including creating capacity in judge president offices to coordinate judicial functions and ensure that judicial norms and standards are implemented, monitored and reported on.
The department will receive increased funding of R34,5 million in 2017/18 and R36,3 million in 2018/19 in the Judicial Support and Court Administration programme for this work.
Excluding direct charges, the bulk of the department’s spending is in this programme, accounting for R2,3 billion or 38,3% of the total departmental budget of R5,9 billion over the medium term.
Because the work in this programme is labour-intensive, most of the spending is on compensation of employees and related goods and services items.
The number of personnel in the programme was expected to increase from 1 709 in 2016/17 to 1 793 in 2018/19, resulting in average annual growth of 12,3% in expenditure on compensation of employees over the period.
This increased capacity would enable the department to increase the percentage of cases finalised with a verdict from 64% in 2016/17 to 70% in 2018/19, while reducing the number of cases on the backlog roll for more than 12 months from 156 in 2016/17 to 56 in 2018/19.
The department supports the JSC to recommend candidates for judicial officers by providing the commission with secretariat and administrative support services.
All appointments of judicial officers are public and therefore 100% transparent, to enhance public trust in the judiciary. Over the medium term, R82,3 million is budgeted for the work of the commission under the JSC subprogramme in the Judicial Support and Court Administration programme.
Judicial officers receive continuous training from the SAJEI. Some 225 judicial education courses are to be provided over the medium term, including on new legislation on domestic violence, maintenance, and immigration.
For facilitating the appointment and training of judicial officers, the department will receive increases of R17,2 million in 2017/18 and R17,9 million in 2018/19 in the Judicial Education and Research programme. The programme’s budget was expected to increase from R37,8 million in 2016/17 to R60,1 million in 2018/19.
The bulk of the spending is in the SAJEI subprogramme, which accounts for 83,9% of the programme’s budget over the medium term.
Source: South Africa Yearbook 2016/17