In accordance with the Constitution and the Organised Local Government Act, 1997 (Act 52 of 1997) up to 10 part-time representatives may be designated to represent municipalities and participate in proceedings of the National Council of Provinces (NCOP).
The Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs aims to build and strengthen the capability and accountability of provinces and municipalities.
- continued hands-on support through the established system and capacity-building programme, focusing on critical areas such as integrated development planning, local economic development (LED), financial management, service delivery and public participation
- evaluating the impact of government programmes in municipal areas, enhancing performance and accountability by improving the quality of reporting on the Local Government Strategic Agenda (LGSA) and improving the monitoring, reporting and evaluation of capacity in local government.
- coordinating and supporting policy development, implementing the LGSA, and monitoring and supporting service delivery.
The Constitution provides for three categories of municipalities.There are 278 municipalities in South Africa, comprising eight metropolitan, 44 district and 226 local municipalities. They are focused on growing local economies and providing infrastructure and service.
Metropoles have a choice between two types of government: the mayoral executive system where the mayor has the authority, or the collective executive committee system.
As directed by the Constitution, the Local Government: Municipal Structures Act, 1998 (Act 117 of 1998) contains criteria for determining when an area must have a category-A municipality (metropolitan municipalities) and when municipalities fall into categories B (local municipalities) or C (district municipalities).
The Act also determines that category-A municipalities can only be established in metropolitan areas.
Metropolitan councils have single metropolitan budgets, common property ratings and service-tariff systems, and single employer bodies.
South Africa has eight metropolitan municipalities, namely:
- Buffalo City (East London)
- City of Cape Town
- Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (East Rand)
- City of eThekwini (Durban)
- City of Johannesburg
- Mangaung Municipality (Bloemfontein)
- Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality (Port Elizabeth)
- City of Tshwane (Pretoria).
Metropolitan councils may decentralise powers and functions. However, all original municipal, legislative and executive powers are vested in the metropolitan council.
- prepare, implement and review industrial development programmes (IDPs)
- establish, implement and review municipalities' performance-management systems
- monitor and review municipalities' performances
- prepare municipalities' budgets
- participate in decisions about the provision of municipal services
- communicate and disseminate information on governance matters.
At the end of March 2013, Misa deployed 68 technical consultants and 24 service providers that support 100 priority municipalities.
The LGTAS was introduced as a government programme of action and a blueprint for better service delivery aimed at responsive, accountable, effective and efficient local government. Five focus areas aimed at fast-tracking implementation of the strategy have been identified. These are:
- service delivery
- financial management
- infrastructure development
- fighting corruption.
The department aims to review all pieces of legislation that impede service delivery. In this regard, more than 300 sections of legislation that fall under this category have been identified and reviews undertaken.
The MIG aims to eradicate municipal infrastructure backlogs in poor communities to ensure the provision of basic services such as water, sanitation, roads and community lighting.
The Department of Cooperative Governance and traditional Affairs is responsible for managing and transferring the MIG and provides support to provinces and municipalities on implementing MIG projects.
The CWP aims to create one million work opportunities by the 2018/19 financial year, covering all local municipalities. The department will spend R2,5 billion in 2015/16 to provide 202 000 work opportunities and R3,7 billion in 2016/17 to provide one million work opportunities across local municipalities.
The CWP is a key government initiative aimed at mobilising communities to provide regular and predictable work opportunities at the local government level. The purpose of the programme is to provide an employment safety net for those without access to opportunities designed to lift them out of poverty. The programme also provides access to a minimum level of regular work, two days a week; eight days a month; and 100 days a year at a wage rate presently set at R71 a day.
The programme recognises that policies to address unemployment and create decent work will take time to reach people living in marginalised areas where few opportunities exist.
The programme has been implemented in 76 of the department’s 105 priority municipalities in the short-term, while in the medium-term; all municipalities in the country will have at least one CWP site.
LED is an approach towards economic development that allows and encourages local people to work together to achieve sustainable economic growth and development, thereby bringing economic benefits and improved quality of life to all residents in a local municipal area.
LED is intended to maximise the economic potential of municipal localities and enhance the resilience of macro-economic growth through increased local economic growth, employment creation and development initiatives within the context of sustainable development. The “local” in economic development points to the fact that the political jurisdiction at local level is often the most appropriate place for economic intervention, as it carries alongside it the accountability and legitimacy of a democratically elected body.
LED programmes provide support in the following areas:
- developing and reviewing national policy, strategy and guidelines on LED
- providing direct and hands-on support to provincial and local government
- managing the LED Fund
- managing and providing technical support to Nodal Economic Development Planning
- facilitating, coordinating and monitoring donor programmes
- assisting LED capacity-building processes.
Through these interventions and resources, local role players and interest groups are mobilised for the sake of achieving economic growth and creating jobs to reduce poverty.
The MDB is an independent authority responsible for the determination of municipal boundaries. The board’s status as an independent authority is also protected by Section 3 of the Local Government: Municipal Demarcation Act, 1998 (Act 27 of 1998) and various judgements by the Constitutional Court.
In addition to the determinations and redeterminations of municipal boundaries, the MDB is also mandated by legislation to declare the district management areas; to delimit wards for local elections; and to assess the capacity of municipalities to perform their functions.
Salga is a listed public entity, established in terms of Section 21 of the Companies Act, 1973 (Act 61 of 1973), and recognised by the Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs in terms of the Organised Local Government Act, 1997 (Act 52 of 1997).
Salga represents local government on numerous intergovernmental forums such as the Presidential Coordinating Council, Minister and MECs (MinMec) forum, the Budget Forum, the National Council of Provinces (NCOP) and the Financial and Fiscal Commission.
Salga aims, among other things, to:
- transform local government to enable it to fulfil its developmental role
- enhance the role of provincial local government associations as provincial representatives and consultative bodies on local government
- raise the profile of local government
- ensure full participation of women in local government
- act as the national employers’ organisation for municipal and provincial member employers
- provide legal assistance to its members, using its discretion in connection with matters that affect employee relations.
Salga is funded through a combination of sources, including a national government grant, membership fees from provincial and local government associations that are voluntary members, and donations from the donor community for specific projects.
The Human Resource Management and Development Strategy aims to turn municipalities into professional and responsive entities.
The strategy is intended to help municipalities make better use of the human capital at their disposal, for them to be able to fulfil their important objective of accelerating service delivery as well as promoting development in local government as a whole.
The strategy emphasises employing individuals who are prepared to extend themselves in serving the needs of people, are professional, and are constantly learning and developing themselves.
One of Salga’s achievements was the establishment of public accounts committees on municipalities, which allowed councils themselves to exercise accountability.
The Disaster Management Act, 2002 (Act 57 of 2002) was promulgated in 2003. The National Disaster-Management Centre (NDMC) and functional disaster-management centres and advisory forums were established in eight provinces. The National Disaster-Management Advisory Forum was recognised by the United Nations (UN) as the national platform for reducing disaster risk.
South Africa has also made significant progress in respect of the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action – a global blueprint which aims to substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015.
Through the NDMC, the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs registered unit standards for levels three to seven with the South African Qualifications Authority for a national certificate in disaster risk management. The department also developed regulations for recruiting and using disaster-management volunteers.
Source: South Africa Yearbook 2015/16